[30/December/2003] Yemen is an Islamic Arab country located in the southwestern of Arabian Peninsula , in the southwestern of Asia . It sets at 12 and 20 latitude lines and at longitude 14 and 54 east .
It is bordered by Saudi Arabia in the north and the Sultanate of Oman in the east , Arabian Sea in the south and the Red Sea in the west .
It has got many islands alongside the Red Sea and Arabian Sea the largest one of all is the island of Sumatra around 150 km away from Yemeni coast .
Ancient geographists used to call it “ Arabia Felix “ in the Old Testimony it was mentioned as the south and it was said that Yemen’s name attributed to ( Aiman Ben Ya’arob Ben Kahtan ) and in the Arabic cultural heritage and as the Yemenis themselves its name derived from the Arabic word (Yuomn) which means the blessedness or welfare and this agrees with the name of the ancient cerographists Arabia Felix .
On the other hand , some of the Arab historians said it is called Yemen because it sets in the right direction of Al-Ka’aba , all in all its name at the present “ Republic of Yemen “
Geographical Features and Topography .
Yemen has got a very spectacular topography ranges from majestic mountains to mysterious desert dunes , from fertile flat plains , to more than 2000 km of breath-taking beaches on the Arabian Sea in the south and Red Sea in the West .
The geographical features divided into five divisions as the following :
The Coastal Region . It includes more than 2500 km spanned alongside the Red Sea in the west , the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean in the south and the Arabian Sea in the east .
This region includes the governorates of : Aden , Hodeiddah , Luhj , Abbyan ,Almahharah and parts of Hudramout .
The Mountainous Region . It begins in the north and continues southward till the area called Bab Al-Mandab,where it makes a turn eastwards alongside the Arab Sea , ending in Al-Mahara. The mountains high ranges from 1000 meter to 3600 meter above Sea level.
The mountainous region contains several valleys such as:
Valleys whish pour its waters in the Red Sea like Wadi Haradh , Wadi Mor , Wadi Sordod ,Wadi Siham ,Wadi Rasian Wadi Zabeed and Wadi Moza’a .
Valleys which pour its waters in the gulf of Aden and Arab Sea like Wadi Twopan , Wadi Bana , Wadi Ahwar and Wadi Hudramout .
Valleys which pour its waters in the desert like wadi Khap , Wadi Algoof and Wadi Athnah in addition to Wadi Harreap and Wadi Grredan and others .
This region includes the governorates of Sana’a , Hujja , Al-Mahweat , Sa’ada , Dhammar , Al-Bidha , Al-Dhalea and Taiz .
The Region of the eastern plains
It is consisted of sedimentary rocks and lies at the east and the northern of the mountainous region and it spans adjacent to it , then it reaches its maximum high at 1000 meter and waters drop to it from the mountainous region .
This region includes the governorates of Al-Mahara , Al-Gowf , Shabbwa , Hudramout and parts of the governorate of Sa’ada .
The Region of Al-Rub’ Al-Khali (empty quarter) .
It is the Yemeni desert region so it is devoid of plants and characterized by its moving dunes sands .In the past , the Al-Rub’ Al-Khali used to be called the largest Yemeni desert or Al-Ahqaf desert .
The Yemeni Islands .There is a large number of the Yemeni islands spread alongside the Red Sea and the Arab Sea . Yemeni Islands characterized by unique topography and spectacular environment .
The Red Sea includes the largest portion of the islands which constitute an archipelago alongside the Yemeni beach .
The Island of Kamaran is the largest and the most important one in the Red Sea , it is inhabited by people and scarce spices of animals . There are also the islands of Baklan , Al-Tir , and Al-Fashet in the north of Kamaran and in the south of it therer are the islands of Zuqar and the archipelago of Hunish which includes the Greater of Hunish and the smaller of Hunish , while the island of Meyoun controls the Strait of Bab Al-Mandab and it haves it .
In the Arabian Sea Yemeni islands spread close to each other, the largest and the most famous one of all is the Island of Socatra where wide variety of medical herb and scarce plants are grown, in addition to , the trees of
Incense , manikin and dyes . The island also contains a lot of rare plants the most famous of the are the Tree of Dum Al-Akhawin ( brothers’ s blood) and the Tree of Al-A’ndum , both of the above trees were used for many medical purposes.
The island are being inhabited by around 35 , 000 of people , there are also several of small island the important of all are the island of Abdul-Kori and the islands of Al-Akhawin Samhah and Drrssah .
Yemen is one of the countries of the largest cellular radiation due to the sun’s perpendicular upon it around the year but the diversity of its geographical features gave rise to diversification in its climate .
In the coastal regions the climate used to be hot and moist in the summer whereas in the winter it is often moderate .
In the inner and mountainous region the climate usually ranges from cool in the winter to moderate in the summer , the moderate climate also prevails in the slopes and plateaus regions where the average of temperature ranges from 10 to 30 degrees Celsius in the summer whereas it goes down to fall below zero in the winter.
The average of moistness may reach up to 80 % with an average of rainfalls ranges from 300 to more than 1000 mm per a year .The climate which prevails in the eastern region is widely different since it is characterized by draughty and the temperature there exceeds 40 degrees Celsius in the summer , while it goes down to 10-15 degrees Celsius in the winter .
The rainfalls rate doesn’t exceed the average of 50 –100 mm particularly at the bounds of Al-Rub’ Al-Khali ( empty quarter ) . Between the above two climate regions lies the interim region which spans from the north and the east of Sana’a to the bounds of Marib .
The entire area of Yemen’s territory has come under the influence of the torrential winds which are coming from the east , it is also influenced by the air’s downfalls in the west which used to be accompanied by rains in the season of the summer .
sabanet,The National Center of Information